After the battle is over, you will be presented with the results. With Fog of War on, enemy casualties are an estimate and can be inaccurate. You may Inspect the Battlefield in the result screen, but this will not lift the Fog of War. Clicking Quit Battle will return you to the main menu in case of Historical Battles or move you back to Campaign.
Once a campaign battle is fought to a conclusion, both sides will have their military experience increase; the losing side will suffer the loss of national morale, and both sides will suffer a loss of support depending upon the number of casualties in the home states of the units that took part in the battle. Commanders may become casualties, famous, or lose reputation, depending on their performance.
The side that is forced to give ground will have its participating armies withdraw or retreat depending on the result. Reinforcing units that did not arrive before the conclusion of the battle will not be affected. Units that are unable to withdraw or retreat may disintegrate. If either side surrenders, the surrendered side will lose the forces on the map, with the soldiers and officers becoming Prisoners of War (POW) or parole. Captured officers may return to duty later; paroled soldiers will return to the pool of manpower.
Depending on casualties and battle results, Readiness will suffer, and the losing side will also suffer the loss of supplies. The winning side may capture left behind weapons from the battlefield, which are added to goods inventory.